Carus-Wilson Essays In Economic History Of Europe

1 See Pincus, Jonathan, “A Positive Theory of Tariff Formation Applied to Nineteenth-Century United States,” Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1972. For the theory of collective goods, see Olsonm, M.Jr., The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1965; rev. ed., 1971); Breton, Albert, The Economic Theory of Representative Democracy (Chicago: Aldine, 1974); and, introducing leadership, Frohlich, N., Oppenheimer, J. A. and Young, O. R., Political Leadership and Collective Goods (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971). Frohlich, Oppenheimer and Young view leaders as political entrepreneurs, interested in maximizing their “surplus” or profit in providing collective goods against taxes, extortions, donations or purchases.

2 Cited by Gerschenkron, Alexander, Bread and Democracy in Germany (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1943), p. 65.

3Helleiner, Karl F., Free Trade and Frustration, Anglo-Austrian Negotiations, 1860–70 (Toronto: Toronto University Press, 1973), p. 63.

4Johnson, Harry G., “Economic Theory of Protectionism, Tariff Bargaining and the Formation of Customs Unions,”Journal of Political Economy, LXXIII (1965), 256–83.

5Stuart, James Montgomery, The History of Free Trade in Tuscany (London: Cassell, Potter & Galpin, 1876), p. 24.

6Fischer, Wolfram, Der Staat und die Anfänge der Industrialisierung in Baden, 1800–1850 (Berlin: Duncker u. Humblot, 1962).

7Bulferetti, Luigi and Costantini, Claudio, Industria e Commercio in Liguria nell' età del Risorgimento (1700–1861) (Milan: Banca Commerciale Italiana, 1966), pp. 495–501.

8Wright, H. R. C., Free Trade and Protection in the Netherlands, 1816–30: A Study of the First Benelux (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1955), pp. 58–59.

9Ibid., p. 112.

10Ibid., p. 139.

11Ibid., p. 113.

12Porter, G. R., The Progress of the Nation (New ed., London: John Murray, 1847), chapter 16.

13Bläsing, Joachim F. E., Das goldene Delta und sein eisernes Hinterland, 1815–1841, von niederländisch-preuschischen zu deutschniederländischen Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (Leiden: H. E. Stenfert Kroese, 1973), p. 85.

14MacGregor, John, Germany, Her Resources, Government, Union of Customs and Power under Frederick WilliamIV (London: Whittaker and Co., 1948), p. 246.

15 Luigi Bulferetti and Claudio Costanti, Industria e Commercio in Liguria, Chapter 2.

16Bowring, John, “Report on the Prussian Commercial Union, 1840,”Parliamentary Papers, 1840, Volume XXI, pp. 38.

17 H. R. C. Wright, Free Trade and Protection, p. 124.

18Böhme, Helmut, Frankfurt und Hamburg: Des Deutsches Reiches Silber und Gold-loch und die Allerenglishte Stadt des Kontinents (Frankfurt-am-Main: Europäische Verlagsanstalt, 1968), Chapter 1.

19Checkland, S. G., The Gladstones, A Family Biography, 1764–1851 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971), pp. 139, 333.

20Crouzet, Francois, “Western Europe and Great Britain: ‘Catching Up’ in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century,” in Youngson, A. J., ed., Economic Development in the Long Run (London: Allen & Unwin, 1972), p. 120.

21 Joachim F. E. Bläsing, Das goldene Delta, p. 83.

22Heaton, Herbert, Economic History of Europe (New York: Harper & Bros., 1936), pp. 398–99.

23Semmel, Bernard, The Rise of Free Trade Imperialism: Classical Political Economy, The Empire of Free Trade and Imperialism, 1750–1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970), pp. 181 ff.

24Brebner, J. Bartlett, “Laissez-Faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth Century Britain,” in Carus-Wilson, E. M., ed., Essays in Economic History, Vol. 3 (London: Edward Arnold, 1962), pp. 254–256.

25Huskisson, William, (The Speeches of the Right Honorable) (London: John Murray, 1832), II, p. 328.

26Ibid., pp. 503–05.

27Labracherie, Pierre, Michel Chevalier et ses idées économiques (Paris: Picart, 1929), p. 131.

28White, A. J., Early Life and Letters of Cavour, 1810–1848 (London: Oxford University Press, 1925), p. 131 (sic).

29 Report of the Select Committee on the Laws Relating to the Export of Tools and Machinery, 30 June 1825, in Parliamentary Papers, Reports of Committee, (1825), Vol. V, p. 12.

30 H. R. C. Wright, Free Trade and Protection, p. 130.

31Report of the Select Committee, p. 44.

32Babbage, Charles, The Economy of Machinery and Manufactures (London: Charles Knight, 4th ed., 1835), p. 363.

33Polanyi, Karl, The Great Transformation (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1944), p. 136.

34 Second Report of the Select Committee on Exportation of Michinery, 1841, in Parliamentary Papers, (1841), Vol. VII, p. xx.

35Ibid., p. xiv.

36 Charles Babbage, The Economy of Machinery, p. 364.

37Musson, A. E., “The ‘Manchester School’ and Exportation of Machinery,”Business History, XIV (January 1972), 49.

38Chambers, J. D., The Workshop of the World British Economic History, 1820–1880 (London: Oxford University Press, 2nd ed., 1968), Chapter I.

39Gallagher, J. and Robinson, R., “The Imperialism of Free Trade,”Economic History Review, 2nd sen, VI (1953), 1–15.

40 Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation, pp. 133–37.

41Moore, D. C., “The Corn Laws and High Farming,”Economic History Review, 2nd ser., XVIII (December 1965).

42 Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation, p. 152–53.

43Cobden, Richard, Speeches on Questions of Public Policy, Bright, John and Rogers, James E. Thorold, ed, Vol. I (London: Macmillan, 1870), pp. 4, 18.

44Ibid., p. 57.

45 The Corn Laws “inflict the greatest amount of evil on the manufacturing and commercial community…” (Ibid., p. 57). “Silversmiths and jewellers get orders not from the Duke of Buckingham but from Manchester, from Glasgow or Liverpool or some other emporium of manufactures,” (Ibid., p. 90).

46Ibid., p. 106.

47 J. D. Chambers, The Workshop, p. 71.

48 Richard Cobden, Speeches, p. 70.

49Ibid., p. 100.

50Ibid., p. 103.

51 Sir Caird, James, High Farming… The Best Substitute for Protection, pamphlet, 1848, in Ernle, Lord, English Farming Past and Present (London: Longmans Green, 4th ed., 1937), p. 374.

52 D. C. Moore, “The Corn Laws and High Farming.”

53 John Bowring, Report on the Prussian Commercial Union, p. 55.

54Brown, Lucy, The Board of Trade and the Free-Trade Movement, 1830–1842 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958), pp. 135, 171 ff.

55 Testimony of Thomas Ashton, in First Report of the Select Committee, para. 235.

56 John MacGregor, Germany, Her Resources, p. 68.

57 John Bowring, Report on the Prussian Commercial Union, p. 287.

58Minutes Evidence, p. 59, para. 782.

59 Bernard Semmel, The Rise of Free Trade Imperialism, p. 149.

60Platt, D. C. M., Finance, Trade and Politics in British Foreign Policy, 1815–1914 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968), p. 87.

61 J. H. Clapham, “The Last Years of the Navigation Acts,” in E. M. Carus-Wilson, ed., Essays in Economic History, p. 161.

62Woodham-Smith, Cecil, The Great Hunger: Ireland, 1845–1849 (New York: Harper & Row, 1962).

63 Mill, cited by Bernard Semmel, The Rise of Free Trade Imperialism, p. 207.

64 List, cited by Fielden, Kenneth, “The Rise and Fall of Free Trade,” in Bartlett, C. J., ed., Britain Pre-eminent: Studies in British World Influence in the Nineteenth Century (London: Macmillan, 1969), p. 85.

65Ibid, p. 78.

66Gouraud, Charles, Histoire de la politique commerciale de la France et son influence sur le progrès de la richesse publique depuis le moyen age jusqu'd nos jours, I, II (Paris: Auguste Durand, 1854), p. 198.

67Ibid., p. 208.

68Amé, Léon, Etudes sur les tariffs de douanes et sur les traités de commerce, I, II (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1876), pp. 170–74.

69Lévy-Leboyer, Maurice, Histoire économique et sociale de la France depuis 1848 (Paris: Cours de Droit, Institut d'études politiques, 1951–1952), p. 96.

70Augé-Laribé, Michel, La politique agricole de la France de 1880 à 1940 (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1950), p. 66.

71 Maurice Lévy-Leboyer, Histoire économique et sociale, p. 92.

72Lutfalla, Michel, “Aux engines du libéralisme économique de la France,”Revue d'histoire économique et sociale, L (1972), 500, 515, 517.

73 Maurice Levy-Leboyer, Histoire economique et sociale, p. 95.

74Chevalier, Michel, Cours d'economie politique, Fait au Collège de France, I, II, III (2nd ed., Paris: no publisher stated, 1855), p. 538.

75 Pierre Labracherie, Michel Chevalier, pp. 130–31.

76Pollard, S. and Holmes, C., Documents of European Economic History. Vol. I: The Process of Industrialization, 1750–1870 (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1968), pp. 384–86.

77 Michel Chevalier, Cours d'economie politique, p. 521.

78Illasu, A. A., “The Cobden Chevalier Commercial Treaty of 1860,”The Historical Journal, XIV (March 1971), 80.

79Rist, Marcel, “Une experience française de liberation des échanges au dixneuvième siècle: le traité de 1860,”Revue d'Economie Politique, 66 annèe (novembredecembre 1956), p. 937.

80Dunham, Arthur L., The Anglo-French Treaty of Commerce of 1850 and the Progress of the Industrial Revolution in France (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1930), p. 179.

81Rosenberg, Hans, Die Weltwirtschaftskrise von 1857–1859 (Stuttgart-Berlin: Verlag von W. Kohlhammer, 1934), pp. 24–26.

82 Most lists are given separately by country. For an overview, see Pollard, Sidney, European Economic Integration, 1815–1870 (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich, Inc., 1974), p. 117. The impact of repeal of the timber duties and the Navigation Acts in stimulating export-led growth in Scandinavia is treated by Norman, Victor D., “Trade Liberalization and Industrial Growth: The Impact of British Trade Liberalization in the 1840s on Industrialization in the Scandinavian Countries,”(MIT, unpublished, December 1970), p. 82. The stimulus to shipping in Norway and to timber exports in Sweden led via linkages to industrialization which the free trade imperialists were seeking to avoid.

83 Arthur L. Durham, The Anglo-French Treaty of Commerce, p. 333.

84 Apart from consumers of imported materials and machinery. But see the view of Lhomme that the State adopted free trade because it loved the grande bourgeoisie and knew their interests better than they did; that the grande bourgeoisie recognized this fact and agreed with the tariff reductions except for a few intransigent protectionists like Pouyer-Quartier. See Lhomme, Jean, La Grande Bourgeoisie au Pouvoir, 183–1880 (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1960), p. 179. It is, however, impossible to accept this rationalization.

85 S. Pollard, European Economic Integration, p. 112; William Huskisson, The Speeches of —, III, p. 131.

86Jacob, William, A View of the Agriculture, Manufactures, Statistics and Society in the State of Germany and Parts of Holland and France (London: John Murray, 1820), pp. 201–02.

87 Wolfram Fischer, Der Staat und die Anfänge der Industrialisierung, p. 128, 134.

88 S. Pollard and C. Holmes, Documents of Economic History, I, p. 374.

89 John MacGregor, Germany, Her Resources, p. 6.

90Olson, MancurJr and Zeckhauser, Richard, “An Economic Theory of Alliances,”Review of Economics and Statistics, XLVIII (August 1966). For a view emphasizing the revenue aspects of the Zollverein, and especially saving in the costs of collection and the reduction in smuggling, see Rolf H. Dumke, “The Political Economy of Economic Integration, The Case of the Zollverein of 1834,” (Queen's University Discussion Paper, 153, presented to the Canadian Economics Association, June 5, 1974). Revenues available from the Zollverein permitted the petty princes to maintain their rule without democratic concessions to bourgeois interests.

91European Economic Integration, p. 112.

92Delbrück, Rudolph von, Lebenserinnerungen, I (Leipsig: Duncker u. Humblot, 1905), pp. 142–44.

93 Wolfram Fischer, Der Staat und die Anfänge der Industrialisierung, p. 136.

94Dawson, William H., Protection in Germany: A History of German Fiscal Policy during the Nineteenth Century (London: P. S. King and Son, 1904), p. 20.

95 Lucy Brown, The Board of Trade, p. 113.

96 John Bowring, Report on the Prussian Commercial Union, p. 287.

97 Rudolph von Delbrück, Lebenserinnerungen, p. 147.

98 Hans Rosenberg, Die Weltwirtschaftskrise, p. 207.

99Henderson, W. O., “Prince Smith and Free Trade in Germany,” chapter 7 in Henderson, W. O., Britain and Industrial Europe, 1750–1870: Studies in British Influence on the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1954), p. 171.

100 Rudolph von Delbrück, Lebenserinnerungen, pp. 162–64.

101Ibid, p. 200.

102 William H. Dawson, Protection in Germany, p. 21.

103Lambi, Ivo Nikolai, Free Trade and Protection in Germany, 1868–1879 (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1963), p. 5.

104Zorn, Wolfgang, “Wirtschafts- und socialgeschichtliche Zusammenhänge der deutschen Reichsgründungszeit, 1859–1879,” in Böhme, Helmut, ed., Probleme der Reichsgrundungszeit, 1848–1879 (Cologne-Berlin: Kipenheur & Witsch, 1968), p. 296.

105Barkin, Kenneth D., The Controversy over German Industrialization, 1890–1902 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), p. 33.


107 Ivo Nikolai Lambi, Free Trade and Protection, pp. 83, 113.

108 Hans Rosenberg, Die Weltwirtschaftskrise, p. 195.

109 Ivo Nikolai Lambi, Free Trade and Protection, p. 57.

110Ibid, p. 191.

111Williams, Judith Blow, British Commercial Policy and Trade Expansion, 1750–1850 (London: Oxford University Press, 1973), p. 199.

112Thiedig, Werner, Englands Uebergang zum Freihandel und die deutsche Handelspolitik, 1840–1856 (Giessen: no publisher stated, 1927; 40-page summary of a thesis), pp. 1–32.

113Greenfield, Kent Roberts, Economics and Liberalism in the Risorgimento, A Study of Nationalism in Lombardy, 1814–1848 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, rev ed., 1965), p. 113.

114Clough, Shepherd B., The Economic History of Modem Italy (New York: Columbia University Press, 1964), p. 27.

115Whyte, A. J., The Political Life and Letters of Cavour, 1848–1861 (London: Oxford University Press, 1930), p. 73.

116Thayer, William Roscoe, The Life and Times of Cavour (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1921), p. 133.

117Pedone, Antonino, “La Politica del Commercio Estere,” in Fua, Giorgio, ed., Le Sviluppo Economico in Italia, Vol. II, Gli Aspetti generali (Milan: Franco Agnelli Editore, 1969), p. 242.

118Castronovo, Valerio, Economia e societa in Piemonte dell' unità al 1914, (Milan: Banca Commerciale Italians, 1969), p. 16.

119 Mori, quoted by Luzzato, Gino, L'economia italiana dal 181 al 1914, Vol. I (1861–1894), (Milan: Banca Commerciale Italiana;1963), p. 28n.

120Prodi, Romano, “Il protezionismo nella politica e nell' industria italiana dall' unificazione al 1886,”Nuova Rivista Storica, L fasc. I–II, 1966, pp. 1–10.

121 Shepherd B. Clough, The Economic History of Modem Italy, p. 114.

122Sachs, Isidore, L'ltalie, ses finances et son développement économique depuis l'unification du royaume, 1859–1884, d'après des documents officiels (Paris: Librairie Guillaumin, 1885), p. 748.

123Norsa, Paolo and Pozzo, Mario, Imposte e tasse in Piemonte durante il periodo cavouriano (Turin: Museo Nazionale del Risorgimento, 1961), pp. 16, 17.

124Parravicina, Giannino, La politico fiscale e le entrate effective del Regno d'ltalia (Archivo Economico dell'Unificazione Italiana, Turin: ILTE, 1958), p. 326.

125 Gino Luzzato, L'economia italiana, p. 28.

126Coppa, Frank J., “The Italian Tariff and the Conflict Between Agriculture and Industry: The Commercial Policy of Liberal Italy, 1860–1922,”The Journal of Economic History, XXX (December 1970), 742–69.

127Kindleberger, C.P., “Group Behavior and International Trade,”Journal of Political Economy, LIX (February 1951), 30–47.

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