Appendix And Bibliography Which Comes First Width

$a - Extent

Number of physical pages, volumes, cassettes, total playing time, etc., of of each type of unit.

For multipart and serial items, it includes volumes (and pagination when pages are numbered consecutively). In records formulated according to ISBD principles, subfield $a contains all data up to and including the next mark of ISBD punctuation (e.g., a colon (:), a semicolon (;), a plus sign (+)).

300##$a149 p. ;$c23 cm
300##$a1 score (16 p.) ;$c29 cm
300##$a11 v. :$bill. ;$c24 cm
300##$a1 map :$bcol. ;$c30 x 55 cm
300##$a1 sound disc (20 min.) :$banalog, 33 1/3 rpm, stereo. ;$c12 in.
300##$a160 slides :$bcol. ;$c2 x 2 in.
300##$a8 reels of 8 (7557 ft.) :$bsd., col. ;$c35 mm$3dupe neg nitrate (copy 2)
300##$a1 videocassette of 1 (Beta) (30 min.) :$bsd., col. ;$c1/2 in.$3(2 copies)
300##$a1 computer disk :$bsd., col. ;$c3 1/2 in.
300##$a95 linear ft.
300##$a10 boxes (24 linear ft.)

When the statement of pagination and of illustrative matter are combined, they are both recorded in a single subfield $a.

300##$a74 p. of ill., 15 p. ;$c28 cm
300##$a27 leaves of plates, 4 p. ;$c31 cm

In works that are not yet complete, only the type of unit designation is recorded preceded by three spaces. (The actual number of pieces received may be recorded as temporary data enclosed in angle brackets.)

300##$av. ;$c29 cm
300##$av. <1-3 > ;$c25 cm

For mixed materials, terms in the physical description indicating the type of unit may be separately subfield coded (see description of subfield $f). In these cases, subfield $a contains only the numeric extent designation.

300##$a42$fcu. ft.
300##$3poems$a1$fpage ;$c108 cm. x 34.5 cm

Repeatable when alternate or additional forms of extent data are given. Alternate forms of extent data are recorded in parentheses.

300##$adiary$a1$fvolume$a(463$fpages) ;$c17 cm. x 34.5 cm
300##$a17$fboxes$a(7$flinear ft.)
[Repeated subfield $a for archival materials.]

May be repeated to describe different parts of multipart items.

300##$a1 reel (312 ft.) :$bsi., b&w ;$c16 mm$3ref print.
300##$a1 reel (312 ft.) :$bsi., b&w ;$c16 mm$3dupe neg.
[Repeated field in a record for motion pictures.]
300##$a65 prints :$brelief process ;$c29 x 22 cm
300##$a8 albums (550 photoprints) ;$c51 x 46 cm. or smaller
[Repeated field in a record for graphic materials.]

For music, subfield $a is repeated for parts information when a subfield $b or $c separates it from the main extent data.

300##$a1 score (30 p.) ;$c20 cm. +$a16 parts ;$c32 cm

The following are specific instructions for how to set up a document in APA format. For further and more detailed instructions, please see chapter 2: "Manuscript Structure and Content" in the APA Handbook.


All margins (top, bottom and sides) should be set at a minimum of one inch.  

The default setting for most Microsoft Word programs is one inch margins.  You can set the margins of your Word document by selecting "Page Layout" > "Margins" from the Ribbon Display Options.

Alignment / Line Spacing

All documents following APA guidelines are required to be aligned left and double-spaced throughout the entire document.  Be sure not to include additional spacing between paragraphs, headings, etc.

Font Type and Size

The preferred font type is Times New Roman.  Additionally, APA requires the font size to be 12 point.  

This is an example of 12-point Times New Roman.

Paragraph Indentation

All papers typed in APA format require paragraphs to be indented one-half inch.  This can easily be accomplished by striking TAB on the keyboard at the start of a new paragraph.  

To set the one-half inch tab default in Microsoft Word, under "Home" on the Ribbon Display Options, select "Paragraph" > "Increase Indent", and set to a one-half inch indentation.

Page Header

Beginning on the very first page (title page) and running continually throughout the APA document, a page header is utilized.  

The page header should appear one-half inch down from the top margin.  It includes the running head flush left and the page number flush right.  The running head consists of the words Running head (the R in Running is capatilized) followed by a colon and the title of the paper in all capital letters. There is a maximum of 50 characters (including spaces).  If the title encompasses more than 50 characters, then only major words should be used.

Ex.  Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER

This can be accomplished using the Header and Footer settings in Microsoft Word.  

Levels of Heading

When a document requires the use of headings, the following five levels should be utilized (See sec. 3.03 APA Handbook).

Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
(Level One)

Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading 
(Level Two)

      Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.
(Level Three)

      Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.
(Level Four)

     Indented, italicized lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.
(Level Five)

*NOTE: In levels three, four, and five, capitalize only the first letter of the first word.

*NOTE: In levels three, four, and five, the paragraph begins on the same line as the heading.

Title Page

The title page of the document should include the following:

         * Page header: Running head is flush left; page number is flush right.

         * Title of the paper, student's name, and name of college of university (typed in that order & centered on the title page).

The Running head will appear .5" from the top of the page.  See Page Header for further instructions about formatting a Running head.

Reference Page

A list of references should be given on a separate page(s) at the end of an APA document.  Every reference cited in the text should be listed on the reference page(s), and every reference listed on the reference page(s) should be cited in the text.  However, note that secondary sources are not necessary as an entry on the reference page-- only the original source that cites it.

General 6th edition APA guidelines for the reference page(s) include:

- Margins should be at least one inch all around (top, bottom, left and right) & double spacing should be used.

- The page heading should be centered and called References.  

- References should be listed in alphabetical order by authors (using surname of first author), associations (if the work is authored by an organization), and Anonymous (if work is signed Anonymous). If no author is provided, the title should be moved before the date and alphabetized according to the first word of the title (excluding a, an, the). 

- Underlining should not be used on the reference page.

- Personal conversations, emails, interviews, and letters should not be listed since the reader is unable to retrieve these types of sources (cite as personal communication in text, but do not list on the reference page).

- The first line of each reference entry should start at the left margin with the following lines being indented one half inch (hanging indent).

- Numerals are used to denote numbers ten and above.

- References beginning with numerals should have the numeral spelled out. (ex. "3 times the fun: The joy of triplets" should be listed as "Three times the fun: The joy of triplets")


The word Abstract should be centered, one inch from the top of the page.  The actual abstract, however, should be left justified.  This is the only paragraph of the paper that is not indented.  It should be concise, accurate, and reflect the content of the document.  The abstract should be only one paragraph in length.  No paraphrasing or direct quotations should be included.


Appendices are pages at the end of the paper (after the references) with additional information.  Appendices allow the author to include information that would be distracting to the reader if included in the body of the paper.  Tables or charts more than a half page in length are often placed in the appendices rather than the text of the paper.  The page header continues onto pages containing an appendix.  

* NOTE: If only one appendix is included, it should be labeled Appendix and centered, with uppercase and lowercase letters.  If more than one appendix is included, they should be labeled Appendix A, Appendix B, etc. 

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