El cuerpo desnudo y tatuado de Viggo Mortensen en un baño turco vaporoso, peleando contra dos chechenios vestidos de negro durante tres minutos y medio, con sangre y violencia en campo, refleja y sintetiza el recorrido cinematográfico de Cronenberg. Un cine donde el cuerpo, su aspecto, su accionar y reaccionar, es el eje desde donde nacen las anécdotas. El cuerpo tecnológico, el cuerpo monstruo, el cuerpo bicho, el cuerpo que se enciende sexualmente a partir del choque.
Esa secuencia dentro de Promesas del este es interesante en dos aspectos:
1. Condensa el cine de David Cronenberg, un cine donde la violencia está presente en cada una de sus películas –desde el gore medio B y bastante desconocido por estos lados de sus inicios, llamado también Cine de la nueva Carne-, hasta sus filmes más emblemáticos realizados a lo largo de los últimos 20 años (La mosca, Crash, Festín desnudo, Dead Ringers).
2. Propone una suerte de fusión, casi especular, con su última cinta Una historia violenta, protagonizada también por Mortensen.
Tanto Una historia violenta como Promesas de este representan un giro en la filmografía de Cronenberg. Hasta “eXistenZ” los mundos propuestos eran, de algún u otro modo, fantásticos, irreales, artificiosos o abiertamente ficticios (con excepción tal vez de Dead Ringers); por lo que la contención del germen enfermizo y a ratos morboso, era consistente dentro de esos universos imaginarios.
Pero al insertar el mal al interior de historias y familias normales y comunes, como es el caso de sus dos últimas películas, la violencia adquiere un nuevo estatuto. Cronenberg trabaja acá desde lo ominoso, en su sentido freudiano: el momento en que lo cotidiano da paso a cierta extrañeza, lo familiar se vuelve novedoso y esta ‘novedad’ está muy cerca de lo terrorífico. Excepto en que no lo es –aunque podría serlo-. Hay un leve traslape de lo que percibimos como real o normal y por lo tanto, una bifurcación hacia un terreno profundamente desconocido y peligroso.
Promesas del este puede, para muchos, apoyarse en un guión absurdo, lleno de baches, de giros mentirosos y de personajes irracionales bobamente desarrollados. Pero creo que nada de eso importa, incluso creo que puede ser una opción conciente por parte del director, en tanto que constantemente abre en sus filmes espacios para que cuestionemos, tanto moral como intelectualmente, a sus personajes. Al igual que Una historia de violencia, esta película opera desde la ambigüedad. La mentira, la manipulación, lo aparente son los valores que parecen sostener a las sociedades contemporáneas en este nuevo universo cronenbergiano.
En sus dos últimas películas, los personajes no sólo se presentan como parte de una sociedad ‘normal’ (la vida perfecta de pueblo pequeño y alejado de las grandes urbes, casi como un estereotipo del ‘american way of life’ en Historia de violencia, o la partera idealista y bonachona en Promesas del este), sino que son extremadamente mundanos, por lo que se exponen a conflictos desde la ‘inocencia’ e ‘inconciencia’, permitiendo la aparición de aquella faceta ominosa de la que hablamos recientemente, a un estado de constante tensión y de suspenso.
Pero esta capacidad de Cronenberg para tensar el relato no la logra mediante su paisaje humano (los Vory V Zakone, una poderosa familia de la mafia rusa del Londres contemporáneos, la vulnerabilidad del rostro de Anna y su familia, la ambigüedad del personaje de Mortensen), elementos más que suficientes para desarrollar un melodrama. Más bien, su capacidad radica en una puesta en escena sugestiva: la invariable lluvia londinense, el interior del restaurante ruso propiedad de los Vori (con un par de guiños a la teatralidad del restaurante de El cocinero, el ladrón, su mujer y su amante, de Greenaway), la propuesta escenográfica algo sucia, que libera la tensión de algún modo, dando cuenta del bien y el mal como condiciones aparentemente absolutas. Pero eso es sólo una apariencia. Y en esa ambivalencia es donde reaparece el viejo y querido Cronenberg, que encuentra su momento culmine en la pelea del Sauna, donde el cuerpo que muta es ahora un cuerpo/historia a través de los tatuajes que contienen los principales acontecimientos de vida de quien lo habita, pero también el cuerpo ambiguo, el cuerpo mentirosamente homosexual, casi robótico y –porque no decirlo- el cuerpo divino.
Urrutia, C. (2008). Promesas del este , laFuga, 7. [Fecha de consulta: 2018-03-11] Disponible en: http://2016.lafuga.cl/promesas-del-este/107
Eastern Promises is a 2007 British-Canadian-Americangangster film directed by David Cronenberg, from a screenplay written by Steven Knight. The film stars Viggo Mortensen, Naomi Watts, Vincent Cassel, Sinead Cusack and Armin Mueller-Stahl. It tells a story of a Russian-British midwife, Anna (Watts), who delivers the baby of a drug-addicted 14-year old Russian prostitute who dies in childbirth. After Anna learns that the teen was lured into prostitution by the Russian Mafia in London, the leader of the Russian gangsters (Mueller-Stahl) threatens the baby's life to keep Anna from telling the police about their sex trafficking ring. As Anna tries to protect the baby, she is enmeshed deeper into the criminal underworld, and she is threatened by the Mafia leader's son (Cassel) and warned off by the son's strong-arm man (Mortensen).
Principal photography began in November 2006, in locations in and around London. The film has been noted for its plot twist, the subject of sex trafficking, and for its violence and realistic depiction of Russian career criminals, which includes detailed portrayal of the tattoos which indicate their crimes and criminal status. Eastern Promises received positive critical reception, appearing on several critics' "top 10 films" lists for 2007. The film has won several awards, including the Audience Prize for best film at the Toronto International Film Festival and the Best Actor award for Mortensen at the British Independent Film Awards. The film received twelve Genie Award nominations and three Golden Globe Award nominations. Mortensen was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor.
Anna Khitrova, a British-Russian midwife at a London hospital, finds a Russian-language diary on the body of Tatiana, a 14-year-old girl who dies in childbirth. She also finds a card for the Trans-Siberian Restaurant, which is owned by Semyon, an old vor in the Russian mafia. Anna sets out to track down the girl's family so that she can find a home for the baby girl, and meets with Semyon, who offers to help. Anna's mother Helen does not discourage her, but Anna's Russian uncle Stepan, a former KGB officer, urges caution. When Stepan translates Tatiana’s diary, Anna comes to learn that Semyon had raped the girl, gotten her addicted to heroin and forced her into prostitution. Ultimately, Anna realizes that the baby was fathered by Semyon.
Semyon’s driver, Nikolai Luzhin, also serves as the family "cleaner", removing evidence and dumping murdered bodies in the River Thames. Through Nikolai, Semyon, fearing prosecution, promises to give the location of the girl's family to Anna if she hands back the diary. Nikolai takes the diary and gives a location, but urges Anna to keep the baby in London. Semyon orders Nikolai to kill Stepan, who soon goes missing. As Nikolai's star rises within the vory, Semyon sponsors him as a full member, due in part to Nikolai's protection of Semyon’s playboy son Kirill, who authorized an ill-advised hit on a rival Chechen vory leader with the help of a Kurdish associate, Azim, and without Semyon’s approval. Two Chechen hit men soon arrive in London seeking vengeance and kill Azim's mentally handicapped nephew, who also took part in the hit. Semyon hatches a plan to trick Nikolai into taking Kirill's place during a meeting at the baths with Azim. The Chechens attack, thinking Nikolai is Kirill, but Nikolai kills them both, ending up in the hospital with severe wounds.
It is revealed that Nikolai is actually an FSB agent who has infiltrated the gang, working under license from the British Government. As part of his undercover duties, Nikolai was able to read Tatiana's diary before Semyon destroyed it, and hatches a plan with his handler to have Semyon arrested for statutory rape, with a paternity test of Tatiana's baby as evidence. Nikolai tells Anna that Stepan is safe, in a 5-star hotel in Edinburgh for protection. Semyon orders Kirill to kidnap the baby girl and kill her. However, as Kirill sits by the Thames working up the courage to throw the child in, Nikolai and Anna find him and persuade him to give the baby back. Nikolai and Kirill embrace as Nikolai tells him that his father is finished and they are now the bosses. Nikolai succeeds Semyon as boss of the organization and Anna gains custody of Tatiana's baby, whom she names Christine.
Shooting began in November 2006, and various scenes were filmed in St John Street, Farringdon, London. Filming also took place in Broadway Market, Hackney and in Brompton Cemetery in the London Borough of Kensington & Chelsea.
The "Trans-Siberian Restaurant" is located in The Farmiloe Building, 34 St John Street, next to Smithfield Market. This is the 6th most popular film and TV location in London, having also been used for Spooks, Penelope and Batman Begins.
When Anna, her mother Helen, and her uncle Stepan meet Nikolai at a fast food restaurant, this was filmed in Bermondsey, south-east London at a Wimpy bar.
The entrance to the "Ankara Social Club" of the film is actually the front door of a residential flat. The Broadway Market hair dresser known as "Broadway Gents Hairstylist" was changed to "Azim's Hair Salon", where in the film one of the Russians is murdered. The owner Mr. Ismail Yesiloglu decided to keep most of the shop front after filming. In the original script, the name was "Ozim's Hair Salon", but it was later changed to "Azim's" as there is no such name as Ozim in Turkish.
The "Trafalgar Hospital" is actually the Middlesex Hospital, a hospital in the Fitzrovia area of London, which closed to patients in December 2005. The building in central London, which was knocked down in 2008, had the inscription 'Trafalgar Hospital', matching the style and apparent age of the old Middlesex Hospital, inserted into the legend above the main door.
The fight scene in the Turkish Baths was filmed on a custom set based on the Ironmonger Row Baths in Islington.
See also: Criminal tattoo
Viggo Mortensen studied Russian gangsters and their tattoos. Mortensen spent a lot of time with a Russian Mafia specialist, Gilly McKenzie (organised crime specialist for the UN) and also consulted a documentary on the subject called The Mark of Cain (2000). The tattoos that he wore, according to the New York Daily News, were so realistic that diners in a Russian restaurant in London fell silent out of fear, until Mortensen revealed his identity and admitted the tattoos were for a film. From that day on he washed off his tattoos whenever he went off the set. Mortensen said of the significance of the tattoos:
"I talked to...(authentic gangsters and Gilly McKenzie)...about what they meant and where they were on the body, what that said about where they'd been, what their specialties were, what their ethnic and geographical affiliations were," Mortensen says. "Basically their history, their calling card, is their body."
The crucifix on his chest was once believed to be inappropriate for a mob chauffeur, but it is accurate because during his vor ceremony it is discovered that he was a thief and left his regular life behind at 15.
Consistent with the trademark violence in much of Cronenberg's work, Eastern Promises features a graphically violent fight scene in a steam bath where the combatants wield linoleum knives. When asked in an interview about the difference between "gun violence" and "knife violence," Cronenberg replied, "We have no guns in this movie. There were no guns in the script. The choice of those curved knives we use in the steam bath was mine. They're not some kind of exotic Turkish knives, they're linoleum knives. I felt that these guys could walk around in the streets with these knives, and if they were ever caught, they could say 'we're linoleum cutters'."
Adam Nayman of Eye Weekly reported that director Cronenberg said "just don't give the plot away" and Nayman wrote "his request is understandable." Nayman said "there is one scene – the in-depth discussion of which prompted the director's anti-spoiler request referenced at the top of this story – that should rank not only in his personal pantheon of spectacularly deployed gore but among the most exhilaratingly visceral patches of cinema, period, full stop."Chicago Sun-Times critic Roger Ebert noted Cronenberg's quote and agreed, saying: "He is correct that it would be fatal, because this is not a movie of what or how, but of why. And for a long time you don't see the why coming."
The film premiered September 8, 2007 at the 2007 Toronto International Film Festival where it won the Audience Prize for best film on September 15, 2007.Eastern Promises opened in limited release in Russia on September 13, 2007.
In the United States and Canada, the film opened in limited release in 15 theaters on September 14, 2007 and grossed $547,092 — averaging $36,472 per theater. The film opened in wide release in the United States and Canada on September 21, 2007 (expanding to 1,404 theaters) and ranked #5 at the box office, grossing $5,659,133 — an average of $4,030 per theater. The film has grossed $51,202,291 worldwide as of January 31, 2008 — $17,266,000 in the United States and Canada and $33,936,291 in other territories.
The film took part in competition at the San Sebastian Film Festival September 20, 2007.
The film was shown at the London Film Festival on October 17, 2007 and was released in the United Kingdom on October 26, 2007.
The film received widespread critical acclaim. As of June 5, 2010, the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 89% of critics gave the film positive reviews, based on 186 reviews. On Metacritic, the film had an average score of 82/100, based on 35 reviews. Todd McCarthy of Variety, David Elliott of The San Diego Union-Tribune, and film critic Tony Medley noted the twists in the film.
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film four out of four stars and wrote "Eastern Promises is no ordinary crime thriller, just as Cronenberg is no ordinary director", and said that "Cronenberg has moved film by film into the top rank of directors, and here he wisely reunites with Mortensen" who "digs so deeply into the role you may not recognize him at first." Ebert said the film has a fight scene that "sets the same kind of standard that The French Connection set for chases. Years from now, it will be referred to as a benchmark."
J. Hoberman of The Village Voice said "I've said it before and hope to again: David Cronenberg is the most provocative, original, and consistently excellent North American director of his generation." Hoberman said the film is "directed with considerable formal intelligence and brooding power" and continues the trend of "murderous family dramas" seen in Spider and A History of Violence. Hoberman called the film "graphic but never gratuitous in its violence", "garish yet restrained", "a masterful mood piece", "deceptively generic" and said the film "suggests a naturalized version of the recent Russian horror flick Night Watch." When describing the cast, Hoberman said "Mueller-Stahl may be perfunctory...but Vincent Cassel literally flings himself into [his role]" and "Mortensen is even more electrifying as Nikolai than in A History of Violence".
Chris Vognar of The Dallas Morning News gave the film a "B+" and said "The film's genius performance belongs to the venerable Armin Mueller-Stahl, who plays the family head with a twinkling eye and an air of avuncular, Old World charm." Vognar wrote "Where some may see melodrama, Mr. Cronenberg locates timeless, elemental struggles between good and evil, right and wrong. But he makes sure to place a mysterious gray area front and center, personified here by Mr. Mortensen's Nikolai", writing "Nikolai Luzhin is...like Ray Bradbury's Illustrated Man...only more dangerous" and "scarily enigmatic." Vognar wrote that Eastern Promises shares themes of "ambiguous identity and rage-soaked duality" with A History of Violence and said both films "have a lock-step precision and both take a sly kind of joy in subverting genre expectations." Vognar said Eastern Promises "is a little too mechanical for its own good...but the mechanics also produce an admirable crispness and sense of purpose, a sense that the man behind the camera knows exactly what he's doing at all times."
Film Journal International critic Doris Toumarkine said the film is a "highly entertaining but sometimes revolting look at a particularly venal branch of the Russian mob." Toumarkine wrote that Mortensen and Watts "are intriguing moral counterpoints. They are also the key ingredients that make Eastern Promises a highly delectable and cinematically rich borsht that upscale film fans will devour." She described Mortensen's performance as "startling," called Watts "touching," Cassel "particularly delicious," but said "Mueller-Stahl, Cusack, and Skolimowski don’t have as much to chew on." She said the film "is also blessed by Howard Shore's restrained score, which lets the film’s other estimable elements breathe through." Toumarkine also said the film is "essentially a character-driven crime thriller but is also a bloody tour de force laced with considerable nudity and sexually bold content that will rattle the squeamish."
Bruce Westbrook of the Houston Chronicle gave the film one star out of four and said it had a "contrived plot" and wrote "what it's really about, more than sensitivity for displaced people or social analyses, is violence — hideous, gruesome, over-the-top violence." Westbrook said "For Cronenberg, such cheap sensationalism is business as usual, and this far into his career, that business has slipped into artistic bankruptcy." Westbrook wrote the film "isn't about Russian gangs so much as Cronenberg's own dark passions not just for violence but excruciating carnage, which he brandishes mercilessly" and that the film was "a stifling descent into grim shock and disturbing awe."
Awards and nominations
Eastern Promises won the Audience Prize for best film on September 15, 2007 at the 2007 Toronto International Film Festival.
The film received three Golden Globe nominations for the 65th Golden Globe Awards, being nominated for Best Motion Picture - Drama, Best Original Score and a Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama nomination for Mortensen, but the film failed to win any.
The film was nominated in five different categories in the British Independent Film Awards for 2007, and won in one category, gaining a Best Performance by an Actor in a British Independent Film award for Mortensen.
Mortensen was also nominated for Academy Award for Best Actor at the 80th Academy Awards, but told the Associated Press: "If there's a strike I will not go." — a reference to the ongoing Writers Guild of America strike. On February 12, 2008, the strike ended, and he attended the ceremony, although he lost the award to Daniel Day-Lewis for There Will Be Blood.
Eastern Promises received twelve nominations at the 28th Genie Awards, tying with the film Shake Hands with the Devil for most nominations, and won seven, Best Supporting Actor (Mueller-Stahl), Screenplay, Cinematography, Editing, Musical Score, Overall Sound, Sound Editing.
Top ten lists
The film appeared on many critics' top ten lists of the best films of 2007.
- 1st — Marc Doyle, Metacritic.com
- 2nd — J. Hoberman, The Village Voice
- 4th — Manohla Dargis, The New York Times (tied with Colossal Youth)
- 4th — Peter Travers, Rolling Stone
- 4th — Steven Rea, The Philadelphia Inquirer
- 5th — Frank Scheck, The Hollywood Reporter
- 7th — Liam Lacey & Rick Groen, The Globe and Mail
- 7th — Scott Foundas, LA Weekly (tied with Before the Devil Knows You're Dead)
- 8th — Desson Thomson, The Washington Post
- 9th — Nathan Lee, The Village Voice
- 9th — Shawn Levy, The Oregonian
- 10th — Jack Mathews, New York Daily News
- 10th — Marjorie Baumgarten, The Austin Chronicle
Speaking in August 2010, Cassel said that a sequel was discussed with Cronenberg whilst they were filming A Dangerous Method. Cassel suggested that the sequel will be filmed in Russia with Cassel and Mortensen reprising their roles.
In April 2012, producer Paul Webster told Screen International that a sequel was in the works, which would reunite director Cronenberg, writer Knight, and actor Mortensen. The film was said to be made by Webster's new production company Shoebox Films in collaboration with Focus Features and was to begin production in early 2013. That August, however, Cronenberg stated that Eastern Promises 2 was "dead": "We were supposed to start shooting 'Eastern Promises 2' in October... [But] It's done. If you don't like it talk to James Schamus at Focus. It was his decision."
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