|Preferred IUPAC name|
|Other names |
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||167.12 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||248 to 250 °C (478 to 482 °F; 521 to 523 K)|
|Main hazards||Irritant (Xi)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|Y verify (what is YN ?)|
Dipicolinic acid (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid or PDC and DPA) is a chemical compound which composes 5% to 15% of the dry weight of bacterial spores. It is implicated as responsible for the heat resistance of the endospore.
However, mutants resistant to heat but lacking dipicolinic acid have been isolated, suggesting other mechanisms contributing to heat resistance are at work.
Dipicolinic acid forms a complex with calcium ions within the endospore core. This complex binds free water molecules, causing dehydration of the spore. As a result, the heat resistance of macromolecules within the core increases. The calcium-dipicolinic acid complex also functions to protect DNA from heat denaturation by inserting itself between the nucleobases, thereby increasing the stability of DNA.
Two genera of bacterial pathogens are known to produce endospores: the aerobic Bacillus and anaerobic Clostridium.
The high concentration of DPA in and specificity to bacterial endospores has long made it a prime target in analytical methods for the detection and measurement of bacterial endospores. A particularly important development in this area was the demonstration by Rosen et al. of an assay for DPA based on photoluminescence in the presence of terbium, though ironically this phenomenon was first investigated for using DPA in an assay for terbium by Barela and Sherry. Extensive subsequent work by numerous scientists has elaborated on and further developed this approach.
It is also used to prepare dipicolinato ligated lanthanide and transition metalcomplexes for ion chromatography.
Simple substituted pyridines vary significantly in environmental fate characteristics, such as volatility, adsorption, and biodegradation. Dipicolinic acid is among the least volatile, least adsorbed by soil, and most rapidly degraded of the simple pyridines. A number of studies have confirmed dipicolinic acid is biodegradable in aerobic and anaerobic environments, which is consistent with the widespread occurrence of the compound in nature. With a high solubility (5g/liter) and limited sorption (estimated Koc = 1.86), utilization of dipicolinic acid as a growth substrate by microorganisms is not limited by bioavailability in nature.
- ^ ab2,6-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid at Sigma-Aldrich
- ^ abSliemandagger, TA.; Nicholson, WL. (2001). "Role of Dipicolinic Acid in Survival of Bacillus subtilis Spores Exposed to Artificial and Solar UV Radiation". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 67 (3): 1274–1279. doi:10.1128/aem.67.3.1274-1279.2001. PMC 92724. PMID 11229921.
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- ^Barela, T.D.; Sherry, A.D. (1976). "A simple, one step fluorometric method for determination of nanomolar concentrations of terbium". Analytical Biochemistry. 71 (2): 351–357. doi:10.1016/s0003-2697(76)80004-8.
- ^Sims, G. K.; O'Loughlin, E.J. (1989). "Degradation of pyridines in the environment". CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control. 19 (4): 309–340. doi:10.1080/10643388909388372.
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Some of the early enzymes in the lysine-biosynthetic pathway also function for dipicolinic acid synthesis in sporulating Bacillus cereus T. 1. The first enzyme, aspartokinase, loses its sensitivity to feedback inhibition by lysing. This change occurs before the time of dipicolinic acid synthesis but at a time when diaminopimelic acid is required for spore cortex formation. 2. A possible regulatory change at a branch point in the pathway was studied by examining the properties of a key enzyme, dihydrodipicolinic acid reductase. No alteration in the feedback sensitivity or sedimentation rate of this enzyme could be detected during sporulation. 3. Two mutants producing heat-sensitive spores were analysed. Both produced spores that contained decreased amounts of dipicolinic acid. Although neither was a lysine auxotroph, they both had greatly decreased activities of certain lysine-biosynthetic enzymes in sporulating cells. 4. Starvation of cells for calcium also results in the production of spores that are heat-sensitive and contain less dipicolinic acid than the control. A decreased content of one of the lysine-biosynthetic enzymes, dihydrodipicolinic acid synthetase, in calcium-starved cells could account for the lower concentration of dipicolinic acid in the spores.
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