Ultraviolet Research Papers

1. Elwood J.M., Jopson J. Melanoma and sun exposure: An overview of published studies. Int. J. Cancer. 1997;73:198–203.[PubMed]

2. Lowe N.J. An overview of ultraviolet radiation, sunscreens, and photo-induced dermatoses. Dermatol. Clin. 2006;24:9–17.[PubMed]

3. Slominski A., Wortsman J. Neuroendocrinology of the skin. Endocr. Rev. 2000;21:457–487.[PubMed]

4. Slominski A., Wortsman J., Luger T., Paus R., Solomon S. Corticotropin releasing hormone and proopiomelanocortin involvement in the cutaneous response to stress. Physiol. Rev. 2000;80:979–1020.[PubMed]

5. Fuchs E. Scratching the surface of skin development. Nature. 2007;445:834–842.[PMC free article][PubMed]

6. Slominski A.T., Zmijewski M.A., Skobowiat C., Zbytek B., Slominski R.M., Steketee J.D. Sensing the environment: Regulation of local and global homeostasis by the skin’s neuroendocrine system. Adv. Anat. Embryol. Cell. Biol. 2012;212:v-115.[PMC free article][PubMed]

7. Fuchs E., Raghavan S. Getting under the skin of epidermal morphogenesis. Nat. Rev. Genet. 2002;3:199–209.[PubMed]

8. Madison K.C. Barrier function of the skin: “la raison d'etre” of the epidermis. J. Invest. Dermatol. 2003;121:231–241.[PubMed]

9. Proksch E., Brandner J.M., Jensen J.M. The skin: An indispensable barrier. Exp. Dermatol. 2008;17:1063–1072.[PubMed]

10. Slominski A., Tobin D.J., Shibahara S., Wortsman J. Melanin pigmentation in mammalian skin and its hormonal regulation. Physiol. Rev. 2004;84:1155–1228.[PubMed]

11. Nordlund J.J. The melanocyte and the epidermal melanin unit: An expanded concept. Dermatol. Clin. 2007;25:271–281.[PubMed]

12. Slominski A., Wortsman J., Plonka P.M., Schallreuter K.U., Paus R., Tobin D.J. Hair follicle pigmentation. J. Invest. Dermatol. 2005;124:13–21.[PMC free article][PubMed]

13. Scherer D., Kumar R. Genetics of pigmentation in skin cancer—A review. Mutat. Res. 2010;705:141–153.[PubMed]

14. Jimbow K., Salopek T.G., Dixon W.T., Searles G.E., Yamada K. The epidermal melanin unit in the pathophysiology of malignant melanoma. Am. J. Dermatopathol. 1991;13:179–188.[PubMed]

15. Joshi P.G., Nair N., Begum G., Joshi N.B., Sinkar V.P., Vora S. Melanocyte-keratinocyte interaction induces calcium signalling and melanin transfer to keratinocytes. Pigment. Cell Res. 2007;20:380–384.[PubMed]

16. Cardinali G., Bolasco G., Aspite N., Lucania G., Lotti L.V., Torrisi M.R., Picardo M. Melanosome transfer promoted by keratinocyte growth factor in light and dark skin-derived keratinocytes. J. Invest. Dermatol. 2008;128:558–567.[PubMed]

17. Yamaguchi Y., Hearing V.J. Physiological factors that regulate skin pigmentation. Biofactors. 2009;35:193–199.[PMC free article][PubMed]

18. Slominski A., Paus R., Schadendorf D. Melanocytes as “sensory” and regulatory cells in the epidermis. J. Theor. Biol. 1993;164:103–120.[PubMed]

19. Kalka K., Mukhtar H., Turowski-Wanke A., Merk H. Biomelanin antioxidants in cosmetics: Assessment based on inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol. 2000;13:143–149.[PubMed]

20. Mackintosh J.A. The antimicrobial properties of melanocytes, melanosomes and melanin and the evolution of black skin. J. Theor. Biol. 2001;211:101–113.[PubMed]

21. Meyskens F.L., Jr, Farmer P., Fruehauf J.P. Redox regulation in human melanocytes and melanoma. Pigment. Cell Res. 2001;14:148–154.[PubMed]

22. Double K.L., Ben-Shachar D., Youdim M.B., Zecca L., Riederer P., Gerlach M. Influence of neuromelanin on oxidative pathways within the human substantia nigra. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2002;24:621–628.[PubMed]

23. Herrling T., Jung K., Fuchs J. The role of melanin as protector against free radicals in skin and its role as free radical indicator in hair. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 2008;69:1429–1435.[PubMed]

24. Wang A., Marino A.R., Gasyna Z., Gasyna E., Norris J., Jr Photoprotection by porcine eumelanin against singlet oxygen production. Photochem. PhotoBiol. 2008;84:679–682.[PubMed]

25. Riley P.A. Melanin. Int. J. Biochem. Cell. Biol. 1997;29:1235–1239.[PubMed]

26. Meredith P., Sarna T. The physical and chemical properties of eumelanin. Pigment. Cell Res. 2006;19:572–594.[PubMed]

27. Slominski A., Paus R. Are l-tyrosine and l-dopa hormone-like bioregulators? J. Theor. Biol. 1990;143:123–138.[PubMed]

28. Slominski A. Neuroendocrine activity of the melanocyte. Exp. Dermatol. 2009;18:760–763.[PMC free article][PubMed]

29. Slominski A., Zmijewski M.A., Pawelek J. l-tyrosine and l-dihydroxyphenylalanine as hormone-like regulators of melanocyte functions. Pigment. Cell Melanoma Res. 2012;25:14–27.[PMC free article][PubMed]

30. Ito S., Wakamatsu K., Ozeki H. Chemical analysis of melanins and its application to the study of the regulation of melanogenesis. Pigment. Cell Res. 2000;13:103–109.[PubMed]

31. Vincensi M.R., d’Ischia M., Napolitano A., Procaccini E.M., Riccio G., Monfrecola G., Santoianni P., Prota G. Phaeomelanin versus eumelanin as a chemical indicator of ultraviolet sensitivity in fair-skinned subjects at high risk for melanoma: A pilot study. Melanoma Res. 1998;8:53–58.[PubMed]

32. Benedetto J.P., Ortonne J.P., Voulot C., Khatchadourian C., Prota G., Thivolet J. Role of thiol compounds in mammalian melanin pigmentation: Part I. Reduced and oxidized glutathione. J. Invest. Dermatol. 1981;77:402–405.[PubMed]

33. Benedetto J.P., Ortonne J.P., Voulot C., Khatchadourian C., Prota G., Thivolet J. Role of thiol compounds in mammalian melanin pigmentation. II. Glutathione and related enzymatic activities. J. Invest. Dermatol. 1982;79:422–424.[PubMed]

34. Sealy R.C., Hyde J.S., Felix C.C., Menon I.A., Prota G., Swartz H.M., Persad S., Haberman H.F. Novel free radicals in synthetic and natural pheomelanins: Distinction between dopa melanins and cysteinyldopa melanins by ESR spectroscopy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1982;79:2885–2889.[PMC free article][PubMed]

35. Costantini C., d’Ischia M., Palumbo A., Prota G. Photochemistry of 5-S-cysteinyldopa. Photochem. PhotoBiol. 1994;60:33–37.[PubMed]

36. Prota G. Melanins, melanogenesis and melanocytes: Looking at their functional significance from the chemist’s viewpoint. Pigment. Cell Res. 2000;13:283–293.[PubMed]

37. Mitra D., Luo X., Morgan A., Wang J., Hoang M.P., Lo J., Guerrero C.R., Lennerz J.K., Mihm M.C., Wargo J.A., et al. An ultraviolet-radiation-independent pathway to melanoma carcinogenesis in the red hair/fair skin background. Nature. 2012;491:449–453.[PMC free article][PubMed]

38. Lu H., Edwards C., Gaskell S., Pearse A., Marks R. Melanin content and distribution in the surface corneocyte with skin phototypes. Br. J. Dermatol. 1996;135:263–267.[PubMed]

39. Andreassi L., Flori M.L., Rubegni P. Sun and skin—Role of phototype and skin colour. Rheumaderm. 1999;455:469–475.[PubMed]

40. Kawada A. Risk and preventive factors for skin phototype.

S. B. Lee1, J. Bogaard, and R. L. Feller

Research Center on the Materials of the Artist and Conservator, Mellon Institute, Carnegie—Mellon University, 4400 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213

1 Current address: Preservation Research and Testing Laboratory, Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540

Historic Textile and Paper Materials II

Chapter 4, pp 54–62

DOI: 10.1021/bk-1989-0410.ch004

ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 410

ISBN13: 9780841216839eISBN: 9780841212664

Publication Date (Print): September 28, 1989

Copyright © 1989 American Chemical Society

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Little data have been available concerning chain breaking or an increase in the degree of oxidation of cellulose during exposure to the visible and near-ultraviolet radiation emitted by ordinary "daylight" fluorescent lamps under moderate conditions of temperature and humidity, both during exposure and during subsequent thermal degradation. The present investigation, involving papers of little or no lignin content -- an unbleached and bleached kraft pulp as well as filter paper -- revealed moderate immediate effects of exposure as well as sensitization towards subsequent thermal degradation. Intervention of an ultraviolet filter noticeably reduced, but did not prevent, deterioration both during exposure and during subsequent aging of 50% RH and 90°C. Continuous exposures of 800,000 to 1,300,000 footcandle hours were involved.

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