Navy Is 1 Bibliography Generator

Where in the sentence does my in-text citation go?

  • If you name your source(s) in a given sentence, a parenthetical citation containing only the year always follows immediately after the name(s) of the author(s). Example: In contrast to earlier work by Abbott and Costello (1999), Laurel and Hardy (2008) propose an altogether different model for optimizing hat density …
  • If you do not explicitly name your source(s) in a given sentence, a single parenthetical citation goes at the end of the sentence or clause it covers, (Goffman, 1974), inside the punctuation, like this (Melville, 1851).
    • “If the sentence ends with a quotation, close the quote, then place the citation between the quotation marks and the punctuation, like this” (Woolf, 1931, p. 14).
  • Do not insert spaces between a parenthetical citation and the punctuation that follows it.

In the paragraph below, the  parenthetical in-text citations are highlighted in yellow, and the signal phrases are in blue. Note that the second sentence is common knowledge, whereas the final sentence is clearly the opinion of the author.

Red and yellow are the best colors with which to decorate your restaurant because they induce feelings of hunger (Smith & Jones, 2009). Consider popular fast-food chains, which often use red and yellow in their advertising and décor. According to Smith and Jones’ study (2009), restaurant customers felt more energized in red and yellow environments, which encouraged them to order more food. The same study indicated that patrons felt relaxed in blue and purple environments, which encouraged them to “spend more time considering the menu options and eat at a slower pace” (p. 29). Although blue décor can give your restaurant a more casual, laid-back feel (Kramer, 1999), Smith and Jones believe it encourages patrons to linger at their tables without ordering additional food or beverages. Accordingly, it is difficult to identify a popular chain restaurant that decorates with calmer hues.

For more information, see the TPO's Citing Responsibly in APA.

Each of the following departments has a required or preferred citation style for theses, dissertations, capstone project reports, and final project reports. If you don't see your department or program listed below, then you are allowed to choose a recognized citation style or you will be directed to use a particular style by your advisor.
We recommend you check with your advisor at the thesis proposal stage.

Department or Program

Citation Style

Acquisition Research Program


Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS)

Turabian (Notes & Bibliography)

Cyber Systems and Operations (CSO/MACO)

IEEEpreferred, but any recognized style will be accepted

Defense Analysis (DA)

Chicago (Notes & Bibliography) preferred, but any recognized style will be accepted

Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE)IEEE
Engineering (if not listed separately)IEEE
Graduate School of Business and Public Policy (GSBPP)APA
Human Systems Integration (HSI)APA
Information Sciences (IS)APA preferred, but advisors may determine another citation style is necessary
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering (MAE)ASME
Meteorology and Operational Oceanography (METOC)AMS
National Security Affairs (NSA)Chicago (Notes & Bibliography)
Operations Research (OR)Some OR advisors require INFORMS
Systems Engineering (SE)Chicago (Author-Date); IEEE if using LaTeX


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