List All Lifestyle Diseases Essay

Posted on by Dout

Lifestyle diseases are defined as diseases linked with the way people live their life. This is commonly caused by alcohol, drug and smoking abuse as well as lack of physical activity and unhealthy eating. Diseases that impact on our lifestyle are heart disease, stroke, obesity and type II diabetes.[1] The diseases that appear to increase in frequency as countries become more industrialized and people live longer can include Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, atherosclerosis, asthma, cancer, chronic liver disease or cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, osteoporosis, stroke, depression, obesity and vascular dementia. In the UK the death rate is four times higher from respiratory disease caused by an unhealthy lifestyle.[2]

Some commenters maintain a distinction between diseases of longevity and diseases of civilization. Certain diseases, such as diabetes, dental caries and asthma, appear at greater rates in young populations living in the "western" way; their increased incidence is not related to age, so the terms cannot accurately be used interchangeably for all diseases.[3]

Causes of the disease[edit]

Diet and lifestyle are major factors thought to influence susceptibility to many diseases. Drug abuse, tobacco smoking, and alcohol drinking, as well as a lack of or too much exercise may also increase the risk of developing certain diseases, especially later in life.[4][5][6] Between 1995 and 2005 813,000 Australians were hospitalised due to alcohol.[7]

In many Western countries, people began to consume more meat, dairy products, vegetable oils, tobacco, sugary foods, Coca-Cola, and alcoholic beverages during the latter half of the 20th century. People also developed sedentary lifestyles and greater rates of obesity. In 2014 11.2 million Australians were overweight or obese [8] Rates of colorectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, endometrial cancer and lung cancer started increasing after this dietary change. People in developing countries, whose diets still depend largely on low-sugar starchy foods with little meat or fat have lower rates of these cancers.[9] Causes are not just from smoking and alcohol abuse. Adults can develop lifestyle diseases through behavioural factors that impact on them. These can be unemployment, unsafe life, poor social environment, working conditions, stress and home life can change a person’s lifestyle to increase their risk of developing one of these diseases.[10]

Death statistics in Australia[edit]

In 2013 there were 147,678 deaths within Australia mostly from lifestyle diseases including smoking of tobacco, alcohol use and other drugs, violence and unhealthy weight have impacted on Australians' death rate. The leading cause of death of Australian males was heart disease with 11,016 deaths, followed by lung cancer with 4,995 deaths, and chronic pulmonary disease killing 3,572. All these conditions were mainly attributed to smoking, alcohol abuse or unhealthy lifestyle.[11] In 2013 coronary heart disease was the leading cause of death in 8,750 women, mainly as a result of their lifestyle. Dementia and Alzheimer disease came second, affecting 7,277 females and thirdly, cerebrovascular disease, killing 6,368. These top three causes of deaths could be minimized through lifestyle changes within the Australian population.[12]

Table Shows that ages of people dying and the top five diseases of which they are dying.[12]

1st2nd3rd4th5th
Age 45-64Circulatory

Coronary

Heart

Disease

Cancer

Lung

Cancer

Cancer

Breast

Cancer

Cancer

Colorectal

Cancer

External

Suicide

Age 65-74Circulatory

Coronary

Heart

Disease

Cancer

Lung

Cancer

Respiratory

COPD

Circulatory

Cerebrova

Scular

Disease

Cancer

Colorectal

Cancer

Age 75-84Circulatory

Coronary

Heart

Disease

Circulatory

Cerebrova

Scular

Disease

Other

Dementia

&

Alzheimer

Disease

Cancer

Lung

Cancer

Respiratory

COPD

Age 85-94Circulatory

Coronary

Heart

Disease

Other

Dementia

&

Alzheimer

Disease

Circulatory

Cerebrova

Scular

Disease

Respiratory

COPD

Respiratory

Influenza

&

Pneumonia

Death statistics in the United States[edit]

In 1900, the top three causes of death in the United States were pneumonia/influenza, tuberculosis, and diarrhea/enteritis. Communicable diseases accounted for about 60 percent of all deaths. In 1900, heart disease and cancer were ranked number four and eight respectively. Since the 1940s, the majority of deaths in the United States have resulted from heart disease, cancer, and other degenerative diseases. And, by the late 1990s, degenerative diseases accounted for more than 60 percent of all deaths.[13]

Lifestyle diseases have their onset later in an individual's life; they appear to increase in frequency as countries become more industrialized and people live longer.[14] This suggests that the life expectancy at birth of 49.24 years in 1900[15] was too short for degenerative diseases to occur, compared to a life expectancy at birth of 77.8 years in 2004. Also, survivorship to the age of 50 was 58.5% in 1900, and 93.7% in 2007.[16]

Prevention[edit]

Prevention is remedies or activities that aim to reduce the likelihood of a disease or disorder affecting people. Lifestyle diseases are preventable for children if parents set them on the correct path, as early life decisions and influences can impact people later on in life.[10] Lifestyle diseases can be prevented through reduction in smoking of tobacco [17] the Australian Government has started this by introducing plain packaging for all tobacco products and increasing the prices of tobacco production.[18] Overweight and obesity can be prevented through a well balanced lifestyle through healthy eating and exercise. Prevention can come about by a person undertaking 30 minutes of moderate exercise daily or by doing 150 minutes of moderate intensity exercise a week.[19] Examples of moderate exercise includes a brisk walk, swim, bike ride or it can also be everyday life activities like mowing the lawn or house cleaning.[20] All causes of lifestyle disease can be prevented through giving up smoking and other drugs, reducing ones intake of alcohol, processed meats (like bacon and sausages), red meats (like pork, beef and lamb), fatty foods and by engaging in daily exercise.

See also this[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Lifestyle disease". MedicineNet. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  2. ^"'Lifestyle diseases' lead to higher mortality rates". Mental Health Practice. 16 (6): 5–5. doi:10.7748/mhp2013.03.16.6.5.p10726. 
  3. ^Pollan, Michael. In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto. Penguin Press HC, The. ISBN 978-1-59420-145-5. 
  4. ^Vaillant GE, Mukamal K. Successful Aging. Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Jun 1;158(6):839-847." PMID 11384887Full Text Online
  5. ^Gary E. Fraser, David J. Shavlik. Ten Years of Life: Is It a Matter of Choice? Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:1645-1652. PMID 11434797Full Text Online
  6. ^Steyn K; Fourie J; Bradshaw D. The impact of chronic diseases of lifestyle and their major risk factors on mortality in South Africa. S Afr Med J, 1992 Oct, 82:4, 227-31. PMID 1411817
  7. ^Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "Main Features - Smoking, risky drinking and obesity". www.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  8. ^Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "Main Features - Key findings". www.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  9. ^Key TJ, Allen NE, Spencer EA. The effect of diet on risk of cancer. The Lancet. 2002 Sep 14;360(9336):861-8. Review. PMID 12243933
  10. ^ abVallgårda, Signild (2011-11-01). "Why the concept lifestyle diseases should be avoided". Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 39 (7): 773–775. doi:10.1177/1403494811421978. ISSN 1403-4948. PMID 21948978. 
  11. ^"Health status (AIHW)". www.aihw.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  12. ^ ab"Leading causes of death (AIHW)". www.aihw.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  13. ^National Center for Health Statistics, National Office of Vital Statistics, 1947 for the year 1900 (page 67), for the year 1938 (page 55).
  14. ^Olshansky, S. Jay; Carnes, Bruce A. (2002). The Quest for Immortality: Science at the Frontiers of Aging. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 191. ISBN 0393323277. 
  15. ^Life expectancy by age, race, and sex, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, FastStats, 2007, retrieved 2009-06-11 
  16. ^Survivorship by age, race, and sex, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, FastStats, 2007, retrieved 2009-06-11 
  17. ^"Preventing and treating ill health (AIHW)". www.aihw.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  18. ^Ageing, Australian Government Department of Health and. "Tobacco product regulation and disclosure". health.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  19. ^"Lifestyle factors (AIHW)". aihw.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  20. ^"WHO | What is Moderate-intensity and Vigorous-intensity Physical Activity?". www.who.int. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 

Lifestyle diseases share risk factors similar to prolonged exposure to three modifiable lifestyle behaviours -- smoking, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity -- and result in the development of chronic diseases, specifically heart disease, stroke, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and some types of cancer.
These illnesses used to be considered the diseases of industrialized countries, so-called "Western diseases" or "diseases of affluence"; however, internationally they are known as non-communicable and chronic diseases, part of the degenerative diseases group. Chronic disease can result in loss of independence, years of disability, or death, and impose a considerable economic burden on health services.
Today, chronic diseases are a major public health problem worldwide. In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 61 per cent of all deaths -- 35 million -- and 49 per cent of the global burden of disease were attributable to chronic diseases. By 2030, the proportion of total global deaths due to chronic diseases is expected to increase to 70 per cent and the global burden of disease to 56 per cent. The greatest increase is anticipated in the African and Eastern Mediterranean regions.
The World Health Assembly adopted a resolution in 2000 on the prevention and control of chronic diseases. It called on its Member States to develop national policy frameworks, taking into account healthy public policies as well as fiscal and taxation measures towards healthy and unhealthy goods and services. The resolution also asked to establish programmes for the prevention and control of chronic diseases; assess and monitor mortality and the proportion of sickness in an area due to chronic diseases; promote effective secondary and tertiary prevention; and develop guidelines for cost-effective screening, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic diseases, with special emphasis in developing countries.
The combination of four healthy lifestyle factors -- maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, following a healthy diet, and not smoking -- seem to be associated with as much as an 80 per cent reduction in the risk of developing the most common and deadly chronic diseases. This reinforces the current public health recommendations for the observance of healthy lifestyle habits, and because the roots of these habits often originate during the formative stages of life, it is especially important to start early in teaching important lessons concerning healthy living.
However, despite the well known benefits of a healthy lifestyle, only a small proportion of adults follow such a routine; in fact, the numbers are declining. Unfortunately, there is very little public awareness of the association between health and lifestyle. Many are unaware that a change in lifestyle is an important factor in the emergence of chronic diseases as causes of increased morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle is -generally considered a personal issue. However, lifestyles are social practices and ways of living adopted by individuals that reflect personal, group, and socio-economic identities.
Modest but achievable adjustments to lifestyle behaviours are likely to have a considerable impact at the individual and population level. Health professionals and the media now repeatedly carry the message that to remain healthy, people need to adopt healthy behaviours. Physical activity, cessation of tobacco consumption, eating a high-fibre, low-fat diet, controlling body weight, and learning to cope with stress reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and premature mortality.
A comprehensive public health approach to tobacco control effectively inhibits the beginning of tobacco use and promotes its cessation, through a range of measures including tax and price policy, restriction on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, packing and labelling requirements, educational campaigns, restrictions on smoking in public places, and cessation support services. A comprehensive approach must include young people to reach the entire population. National policy measures known to have the biggest impact on individual levels of consumption, cessation rates, and initiation rates require sustained political will and engagement and, above all, effective and well-enforced legislation.
Furthermore, effective public health measures are urgently needed to promote physical activity and improve health around the world. The challenge of promoting physical activity is as much the responsibility of governments, as of the people. However, individual action for physical activity is influenced by the environment, sports and recreational facilities, and national policy. It requires coordination among many sectors, such as health, sports, education and culture policy, media and information, transport, urban planning, local governments, and financial and economic planning. Towards this end, the World Health Organization is supporting its member States by providing nationwide evidence-based advocacy on the health, social, and economic benefits of healthy lifestyles.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Merck Institute of Aging & Health. The State of Aging and Health in America 2004. (Washington, DC: Merck Institute of Aging & Health, 2004).
Ford, Earl S; Bergmann, Manuela M; Kroger, Janine; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner. "Healthy Living Is the Best Revenge: Findings From the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study", Arch Intern Med, 169 (15) (2009): 1355-1362.
King D.E, Mainous A.G 3rd, Carnemolla M, Everett C.J. "Adherence to Healthy Lifestyle Habits in US Adults, 1988-2006", Am J Med. 122(6) (June 2009): 528-34.
Kvaavik, Elisabeth; Batty, G. David; Ursin, Giske; Huxley, Rachel; Gale, Catharine R. "Influence of Individual and Combined Health Behaviors on Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in Men and Women: The United Kingdom Health and Lifestyle Survey", Arch Intern Med, 2010; 170 (8): 711-718.
Murray, C.J.L & Lopez, A.D. "The global burden of disease: a comprehensive assessment of Mortality and disability from diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020". Cambridge, MA: Harvard School of Public Health, 1996.
WHO. Neglected Global Epidemics: three growing threats. The World Health Report, 2003.
WHO. Projections of mortality and burden of disease to 2030 (Geneva: 2007).

Categories: 1

0 Replies to “List All Lifestyle Diseases Essay”

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *